Additional substances to nourishment - "food additives" are defined substances normally not eaten as food and which are not typical food ingredients, possessing or not nutritive value, their deliberate technological use in manufacturing, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, parceling, transport and storage results in intentional or expected effects in foodstuff or semi-products being its components. Food additives may directly or indirectly become food ingredients or in other way affect its characteristic features. The definition does not include substances added in purpose of keeping or improving nutritive value. EU legislation on food additives is based on a positive list. Only those additives explicitly authorized may be used, and most food additives may be used only in limited quantities in certain foodstuffs. If no quantitative limits are established for the use of a food additive, it must be used according to good manufacturing practice. This means using only as much as necessary to achieve the desired technological effect. All food additives must have not only a demonstrated useful purpose but also a thorough and rigorous scientific safety evaluation before they can be approved for use. The main committee that evaluate safety in Europe is the EU Scientific Committee on Food (SCF). Also at the international level there is a Joint Expert Committee, from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), on Food Additives (JECFA). In the European Community, approved food additives are written with a prefix of "E". These numbers are also used in Australia and New Zealand but without the "E".
Food additives are not the following ingredients:
1) Substances designated to drink water, mineralized water and other.
2) Products containing pectin and originated from dried apple flesh or dried pomace from apples or citrus fruit peel or their combination, obtained by dilute acid action after what partial neutralization by sodium and potassium salts ("liquid pectin").
3) Chewing gum basis.
4) White or yellow dextrins, roast or dextrined starch, starch modified by acid or base action, bleached starch, physically modified starch and starch treated by amylolicit enzymes.
5) Ammonium chloride.
6) Blood plasma, glutin, protein hydrolisates and their salts, milk protein, gluten.
7) Amino acids and their salts other than glutamic acid, glycine, cysteine, cystine and their salts which do not constitute functions of additives.
8) Casein, caseinians.
Food additives list*